However, no one is bothered about putting in the effort required to accomplish enterprise goals. Peter also sits on the Board of Trustees at Fuller Theological Seminary in USA; chairs the Board of Amber Initiative, a youth social justice initiative in Singapore and the True to Life Foundation, a community service agency in Thailand. Likert found that those managers who adopted the system 4 approaches had the greatest success as leaders, as they were most effective in setting goals and achieving them, and were generally more productive. When new school leaders encounter resistance to a great idea, they often find themselves mentally criticizing the people who oppose it. The insight provided by Burns and Bass suggest that leaders are able to stimulate, transform, and use the values, beliefs, and needs of their followers to accomplish tasks. Such leaders depend largely on subordinates to set their own goals and the means of achieving them. They may be able to produce high levels of subordinate satisfaction by being considerate, and at the same time can be specific about the results expected, thereby focusing on task issues too. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model: One of the major contingency approaches to leadership is Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard’s situational leadership model. Charismatic leaders have great influence over their followers. The use of the trait and behavioral approaches to leadership showed that effective leadership depended on many variables, such as organizational culture and the nature of tasks. Managers do not try to get the group to adopt the managers’ own preferred solution; they accept and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. The Solution. A visionary leader’s sight will also be lifted from the human to the divine, the ability to discern the finger of God in human affairs, acknowledging a higher accountability for any leader. Moreover, the trait approach does not give one an estimate of how much of any given trait a person should possess. In fact, Fiedler believes that most managers are not very flexible, and trying to change a manager’s style to fit unpredictable or fluctuating situations is ineffective or useless. However, the individual must be able to link his or her efforts to the effectiveness of his/her job performance, leading to the accomplishment of goals. In his survey of leadership theories and research, Ralph M. Stogdill found that various researchers have related some specific traits to leadership ability. Team managers believe that concern for people and for tasks are compatible. Listen to “Leadership Perspective #4: Resistance against what? For a complete list of latest thinking across industries and business capabilities, scroll to the bottom of the page. (b) The work environment, including such components as the task, the reward system, and the relationship with co-workers (see Figure 12.4). They believe that tasks need to be carefully explained and decisions endorsed by subordinates to achieve a high level of commitment. In order to determine which style combination is more appropriate in a given context, the motivation, experience and ability of followers must be assessed; and re-assessed, as the context changes. It becomes evident to the leader that stakeholders are people more important than shareholders in organizations. In the employee-centered approach, the focus of the leaders was on building effective work groups which were committed to delivering high performance. August 19, 2013 3 Comments. In other words, rather than try to figure out who effective leaders are, researchers tried to determine what effective leaders do – how they delegate tasks, how they communicate with and try to motivate their followers or employees, how they carry out their tasks, and so on. Participation, empowerment, relationships, etc. How they perceive and define reality will determine appropriate actions or directions to be taken. Modeling these principles will enable you to succeed as a leader. Lessons in Leadership: 4 perspectives taking top administrators to the next level Avoiding popularity contests and focusing on culture were among prominent themes in our discussions this year with principals and superintendents. When it became evident that effective leaders did not seem to have a particular set of distinguishing traits, researchers tried to study the behavioral aspects of effective leaders. Expectancy theory indicates that employee motivation is dependent on those aspects of the leader’s behavior that influence the employee’s goal-directed performance and the relative attractiveness to the employee of the goals involved. In the 1940s, most early leadership studies concentrated on trying to determine the traits of a leader. The final query, “Whose Am I” plumbs the emotive and affective depths of the leader. Many researchers have tried to identify the physical, mental, and personality traits of various leaders. Content Filtration 6. In 1945, a group of researchers at Ohio University began extensive investigations on leadership. Theories of Leadership: Top 4 Theories of Leadership. The two-dimensional approach led to the interesting probability that a leader might be able to place emphasis on both task and people-related issues. The most publicized aspect of the studies was the identification of two dimensions of leadership behavior: ‘initiating structure’ and ‘consideration.’ Initiating structure is the extent to which a leader defines his or her own role and those of subordinates so as to achieve organizational goals. Democratic (supportive and innovative) 7. … Then the managers make the decision, which may or may not reflect subordinates’ influence. Contrary to the autocratic leaders, democratic leaders allow input from their teammates. (b) Such behavior complements the environment of the subordinates by providing the training, guidance, support, and rewards or incentives necessary for effective performance. Transformational Leadership Theory. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model holds that the leadership style should be dynamic and flexible. 5- Accountability- He challenged the community to follow him that evening and to walk with him. Theoretical perspectives are organized in a four-fold typology based on the dominating assumptions of the research effort: (1) the focus on a universally appropriate set of leadership traits, (2) the focus on a universally appropriate behavioral style, (3) the focus on situationally contingent leadership traits, and (4) the focus on situationally contingent behavioral styles. ... Seeking different perspectives. According to Economy, leadership embodies: Decisiveness; Awareness; Focus A leader cannot be silent. At the other extreme, even in a favorable situation wherein the leader has considerable position power, a well-defined task structure and good leader-member relations exist; Fiedler found that a task-oriented leader would be the most effective. Depending on the degree of the managerial concern for people and production, a manager can fall anywhere on the grid. Then the managers, who must consider the situation according to this theory, suggests that leaders... 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