Type I and II (22–24 day interval; emasculation 5 days after spathe opening; bagging 3 days later); Type III (0 interval; emasculation and bagging 48 hours before natural opening); and Type IV (emasculation the day of natural opening; bagging 3 days later). Rognon F. 1976. It is a type of racemose inflorescence. In a year a coconut tree generally produces 12–20 inflorescences. The following regeneration guidelines are based mainly on the manual prepared by Santos et al. A safety margin of 8 days between bagging the inflorescence and harvesting the pollen is sufficient to ensure the death of virtually all the pollen grains which were on the inflorescence when it was bagged. Coconut palms can be classified according to the size and stature of the palm, and are referred to as Talls and Dwarfs. (15.2-30.5 cm); brown, green, yellow, showy; does not attract wildlife Step 2. The wood of the coconut palm is known in the lumber trade as "porcupine wood". (photo: Fonana Youssouf), Hand pollinating a female coconut flower. Maintain seedbeds with daily watering and partial shading, and inspect for disease and pest incidence. Common name. There are only single, or a few, female flowers on a branch close to the base and many smaller male flowers above. 1980. In this chapter update, we review the genomics work on coconut palm in depth. Coconuts are conserved ex situ in field genebanks, but are propagated from seed. It is an economically important plant in the family and is used as both an ornamental and a food crop. The fruit of the coconut is a fibrous drupe. Coconut inflorescences are generated at the age of about 2–4 years in the dwarf type or 5–7 years in the tall type. 2008. The few which might still be viable at the time would not survive the preparation and conditioning of the pollen. Place the earliest germinating seedlings in the first row in the eastern side of the area and the later germinating seedlings on the western side to reduce competition for sunlight. Available here (4.4 MB). Coconut is an important subsistence crop of the humid tropical zones and is a life-supporting species in fragile island and coastal ecosystems. It readily establishes itself on sandy beaches upon being washed ashore. Sangare A, Rognon F, Nuce de Lamothe M de. Generally coconut is classified into dwarf and tall groups. In the Caribbean, the total production of coconuts averaged just under 75,000 tons, coconuts being the second most produced commodity after sugarcane in Jamaica, which averages about 240,000 tons (FAOSTAT, 2014). Pollen shedding overlaps with the opening of the female flowers. Given proper care and growing conditions, coconut palms produce their first fruit in six to ten years, taking 15 to 20 years to reach peak production. Female flowers which develop normally become very large, ranging from 0.5 to more than 2.5 kg. One year is required between pollination and harvest and another year for the plant to grow in the nursery. Slice off the small part of the top of the husk to help retain moisture in the husk during watering and to encourage germination. They have been found in the Caribbean and the Atlantic coasts of Africa and South America for less than 500 years (the Caribbean native inhabitants do not have a dialect term for them, but use the Portuguese name), but evidence of their presence on the Pacific coast of South America antedates Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the Americas. Prepare the pollen–talc mixture and pollinate by hand when most of the flowers have their stigmata open and are secreting nectar (see photo). The trees are tall, reaching up to 30 m in height, with a slender, often curved trunk. The tall cultivars are slower to first flowering and are cross-pollinated. Before the palms reach a height which makes controlled pollinations difficult. Main ingredients are the tender coconut inflorescence( Narikela pushpa), Almonds, palm candy sugar, dry black raisins, dates, cardamom, saffron, milk to name a few. It can be polished and varnished to make containers. In the Hawaiian Islands, the coconut is regarded as a Polynesian introduction, first brought to the islands by early Polynesian voyagers from their homelands in Oceania. These guidelines have been peer reviewed by V. Ramanatha Rao, India, and Gerardo A. Santos, Philippines. On Palm Sunday, Filipinos bring coconut fronds, called palaspas, to the Church, to commemorate Jesus’ triumphal entry into Jerusalem. The fruit can float and endure long journeys in seawater. Using a sharp knife, tap the inflorescence by slicing at least 6mm to cut the tissues and eventually allow the surge of the sap. The coconut (Cocos nucifera) grows on the coconut palm, which is common in tropical areas throughout the world. Cover the base of the crown with loose topsoil, slightly firmed at the base of the crown. Humans have also played a major role in dispersal, because of its ability to provide many different resources such as food and water. Avoid writing on the plastic bag. When the sprout emerges through the husk to a height of 4–6 cm, trim seedlings of any injured roots and plant in polybags filled with appropriate soil–manure mixture. Laguna Tall coconut fruits from the Philippines. Konan J-L, Bourdeix R, Batugal P. 2005. La fécondation artificielle du cocotier [The controlled pollination of coconut]. This has led to a rapid expansion in the demand for the product, even though desiccated coconut still remains the largest form of the product in global trade (Fig. It is ovoid in shape with three sides divided by ridges. About 4 months is needed for this controlled pollination process, including pollen harvest, bagging of the inflorescences, pollination and removing the bags. After planting in the field, mark the palm by painting the trunk to avoid any error during the observation. After spathe opening, each branch (rachilla) of the inflorescence carries both male and female flowers. The information on this page was extracted from:
Pollinisation assistée et contamination par des pollens indésirables [Assisted pollination and contamination by undesirable pollen]. Apply mechanical, chemical or biological treatment depending on the pest on advice by your plant health expert. Density of palms depends on the type of accession. Production and provision of hybrid seednuts. Cut down thick vegetation, clear debris, then plough and harrow to improve soil tilth. Lay out the polybag nursery to enable equal setting of the seedlings at optimum distance, following a triangular system with equal spacing of 60cm (see photo). Apply fertilizer 2 months after germination (20g (NH. Dwarfs should be planted at a density of 205 palms/ha with a spacing of 6.5m between palms and 5.6 m between rows. In the case of autogamous (dwarf) varieties in which the male phase starts as soon as the spathe opens naturally, put the bag on 72 to 48 hours before the presumed date of opening. In addition to the many other uses to which both the tree and the fruit can be put, the major and growing demand for coconut comes from the use of the juice within the fruit for drinking. The coconut palm Cocos nucifera belongs to the palm family, one of the largest in the monocotyledon group. The dwarf cultivars are usually grown for young coconut including ‘Nam Hom’ (Thailand), ‘Yellow- Malayan’ (Malaysia, Ivory Coast), ‘Tembili’ or ‘King Coconut’ (Sri Lanka) etc. The bunch is ready for harvesting when at least one nut has a brown husk or if the water inside the nut cavity sloshes around when shaken. Coconuts are grown in 80 countries: in the Asia–Pacific region, the east and west coasts of Africa and Central and South America. It has generally been accepted that the coconut originated in the Indian–Indonesia region and float-distributed itself around the world by riding ocean currents. 10 pp. When the number of living palms is less than 75 for cross-pollinating varieties or less than 30 for self-pollinating varieties. A tall coconut with niu kafa fruit. Since the fruit is monospermous, it encloses a single seed. Regeneration guidelines: coconut. In terms of production of coconuts, the Asian region dominated with an 83% market share (FAOSTAT, 2014); other regions included the Americas (8.7%), Oceania (4.8%), and Africa (3.4%). Male parent 1 is used to pollinate female parents 1 and 2; male parent 2 is used to pollinate female 2 and 3; and so on, following the sequential double pair mating procedure. The palm is monoecious, i.e. The exocarp, or the epidermis, is about 0.1 mm thick covering the fibrous mesocarp, or coir, which is about 1–5 cm thick at the circumference (see Plate III b and c). 2005. Make a slight depression towards the base of the crown to trap rainwater. The information on this page was extracted from: Soil: wide range of soil types from sandy loam to heavy clay. The top of the nut must be about 5–8 cm below the ground level. The inflorescence is a cymose panicle, formed in the axil of the leaves on several stem segments (Figs 11.2 and 11.5). Never leave them in the plantation overnight in case of accidental mixing or loss. Carefully record pollinations and harvesting. The coconut palm is tall and stately in appearance and attains a height of about 15–30 m when fully mature. The immature inflorescence (spadix) is covered in spathes. Randomly select true-to-type parents among the palms bearing inflorescences that are ready to open after a month, at the right stage for controlled pollination. CFC Technical Paper No. Store seed nuts in the shade to complete the maturation process. 1. Coconut hybrids for smallholders. The male flowers, which are on the top portion of spikelets attached to the peduncle, are more numerous than the female flowers, which occupy the base of the spikelets. The coconut is a monoecious plant producing male and female flowers separately on the same tree. There should be at least 45 palms per dwarf accession and 90 palms per tall accession and they must have been generated from at least 10 parent palms for dwarf accessions and 40 parent palms for tall accessions. Plant nuts close to one another and cover them with soil, with about two-thirds of their size buried to prevent them from floating in case of heavy rains. The major insect pests include the rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros (Linnaeus)), the palm weevils (Rhynchophorus spp. If using organic matter instead of mineral fertilizer, determine its mineral content before use to ensure that the palms are adequately fertilized. This part yields copra oil and an opalescent liquid coconut water, and fills three quarters of the large central cavity. source Flowers and fruit: Inflorescence 1-1.5 m long and branched to one order. CIRAD, COGENT, IPGRI. They are now almost ubiquitous between 26°N and 26°S except for the interiors of Africa and South America. The two main types of coconut palm are tall and dwarf. Gray, in Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Third Edition), 2013. The vascular sap collected from immature unopened coconut inflorescence is popularly known as Neera in fresh form. The Nair community of Kerala place a coconut inflorescence inside a wooden barrel filled with paddy grains as the auspicious centerpiece in the kalyanamandapam (traditional wedding podium) of the. Tall palms are normally cross-pollinating and heterozygous, while dwarf palms are normally self-pollinating and homozygous. Figure 7.3. Take fruit to the nursery straight away and store in the shade to complete the maturation process. Climatic and nutritional conditions during the flowering stage affect the relationship between the number of female flowers and ripe fruits obtained, or the fruit set rate. The fruits have no dormancy and so cannot be stored for long. Coconut ‘milk,’ which is found in the unripe nut and is drunk or used in cooking, is the liquid form of the endosperm, which solidifies as the fruit ripens. Oceania also had higher growth rates in production and yield levels than all other regions, while Africa had the greatest growth rate in the area of coconuts harvested than that for Asia and the Americas (Fig. The inflorescence develops within a strong, tough pointed double sheath called spathe. Apply fertilizer (NPK + Mg) 1 year after planting based on the results of leaf analyses, and every year after that. The smaller male flowers are at the tip of the inflorescence, while the larger female flowers are at the base. Contact Us. The native origin of the palm is uncertain, as the nuts were easily dispersed between both islands and continents by ocean currents and by early explorers. The meat of these coconuts, called copra, is often dried, ground and pressed for oil, and their fiber is spun into rope, or coir. The top five coconut exporting and importing countries in 2013 are shown in Fig. Coconut (Cocos nucifera; Arecaceae) is widely distributed in tropical regions of the world, ranging between 20° N and 20° S latitude. Tie the inflorescence with plastic twine and slowly pull them downwards. allergies popped up to cat's, dog's, coconut, and adhesive to name a few. I have had issues since my appendix surgery at 16yrs old. 7.6A–B, respectively. Harvest seed nuts every 2 months for tall accessions and every month for dwarf accessions. From: Industrial Crops and Products, 2015, Laura J. Pham, in Industrial Oil Crops, 2016. To bag the inflorescence, cut the spathe at the base, opening it first if it has not yet been done (in the case of autogamous plants). Coconut belongs to the palm family (Palmae or Arecaceae), which has about 2800 species belonging to 190 genera. Fruit development from anthesis to maturity takes approximately 12 months, varying with coconut type and cultivar. Santos GA, Batugal PA, Othman A, Baudouin L, Labouisse JP, editors. 4). B.A. The tall tree such as the Sri Lanka or West African tall can grow up to 25–30 m while the dwarf, such as the Malayan dwarf typically does not exceed 4–8 m in height. It is sweet and oyster white in colour and translucent. A. Gordon, J. Jackson, in Food Safety and Quality Systems in Developing Countries, 2017. For allogamous and partially allogamous varieties, bag the inflorescences on the day the spathe opens. Harvest seed nuts monthly, 11 months after pollination. In an early genetic engineering success, B. napus was engineered to produce oil with about 50% lauric acid through transformation with a cDNA encoding a lauryl-ACP thioesterase from the California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) (Voelker et al., 1996). Taking care not to knock off the male flowers, fit the plastic bag over the inflorescence with the opening towards the base of the peduncle. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an important multipurpose perennial crop of the tropics. If possible, use different male and female parents. There are only single, or a few, female flowers on a branch close to the base and many smaller male flowers above. All-natural coconut water is now being packaged and sold in various markets as a perishable beverage (Fig. In this study, B. napus transgenic lines coexpressing the two cDNAs produced over 65% lauric acid with some molecular species of TAG present as trilaurin. The main axis is branched and numerous sessile flowers are enclosed in a large bract known as spathe. Thengin pookuladi Rasyanam is a fabulous medicine enriched with the nutrients of coconut inflorescence. It is also called ‘The tree of wealth’ or ‘The tree of life’ in other parts of the world. Spathe and inflorescence The coconut spathe is the scope-like structure that encloses the inflorescences (the flowers) of the tree. It is woody and perennial with a stem that is erect, unbranched and cylindrical and grows from a single shoot meristem at the apex of the plant. Mixed Inflorescence: In this case two or more types of inflorescence get mixed up to form a mixed … The male … 1978. The top of the trunk consists of a radiating compact crown with large, thick cuticled pinnate leaves. For example, 95% of yellow and red dwarfs are autogamous (self-pollinating) and the yellow or red colour of the sprout of the germinated seed nuts can be used as a genetic marker to eliminate off-types. Visit the field twice a week (young plantation) or once a month (adult plantation) to monitor and control pests or diseases. If the off-type is identified during the first two years after planting, replace it with legitimate material. (photo: Fonana Youssouf), Harvested coconut seednuts (photo: Fonana Youssouf). The male flowers number about 250–300 per spikelet. Type II (indirect partial autogamy): Short female phase with no overlap with the male phase of the same inflorescence but with considerable or total overlap with the male phase of the following inflorescence. (photo: Fonana Youssouf), Conditioning coconut pollen in a freezer. The exocarp and the mesocarp make up the husk of the coconut. Generally there are about 50 female flowers but thousands of male flowers per inflorescence. ), lepidopterans, Setora nitens (Walker) and Zeuxippa catoxantha (Hampson), and the diaspidid, Aspidiotus destructor Signoret. The familiar hard shell of the coconut is the endocarp, or inner layer, of the mature ovary of the fruit, and within the shell is the actual seed, covered with a thin brown seed coat. Coconut production share (A) and growth rate by region (B). The other is a soft eye having the embryo located underneath. Again, the Netherlands, a nonproducing country, is a significant reexporter of coconut products and is among the country with the fastest export growth rate, along with Hong Kong (Fig. It is claimed that they evolved to disperse significant distances via marine currents. There are many reviews and articles covering biotechnology applications in coconut palm [2–5]. Each of these 48 crosses is made twice, for a total of 96 controlled pollinations. The fruits of the palm mature in 12 months. Fruit-bearing starts after six years. Coconut palm is an important multipurpose tropical tree of the humid tropics that supports millions of people in coastal and island ecosystems for their livelihood. As the presence of the bag has a strong depressive effect on fruit set, do not bag the inflorescences too early. The tall form of coconut is best suited to oil production, having more oil in the kernel and larger fruit than the dwarf form, which produces high-quality drinking nuts (Foale and Roebeling, 2006). Examples are … Coconut provides a wide spectrum of human consumable products such as oil, kernel, tender nut water, toddy, neera, coconut sugar, immature inflorescence and haustorium. International Agricultural Research Centres who worked together to make this site possible:
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