Some modern mechanised infantry units are termed cavalry or armoured cavalry, even though they never had horses, to emphasise their combat mobility. The 13th Infantry Regiment ("First at Vicksburg") is a United States Army infantry regiment whose battalions are currently tasked as basic training battalions. "Foot soldier" redirects here. The word derives from Middle French infanterie, from older Italian (also Spanish) infanteria (foot soldiers too inexperienced for cavalry), from Latin īnfāns (without speech, newborn, foolish), from which English also gets infant. Empires formed around their military. Learn more. This made the legions less dependent on the, Keeley, War Before Civilization, 1996, Oxford University Press, pg.45, Fig. The list of Regiment abbreviations in Infantry. Kushite king Taharqa enjoyed military success in the Near East as a result of his efforts to strengthen the army through daily training in long distance running.[26]. [21] The pilum was a javelin of the Roman legionaries threw just before drawing their primary weapon, the gladius (short sword), and closing with the enemy line.[24]. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. However, if light cavalry was lacking in an army, any available dragoons might be assigned their duties; this practise increased over time, and dragoons eventually received all the weapons and training as both infantry and cavalry, and could be classified as both. They may also deploy anti-personnel mines, booby traps, incendiary or explosive devices defensively before combat. The modern rifleman infantry became the primary force for taking and holding ground on battlefields worldwide, a vital element of combined arms combat. Infantry traditionally have been the main force to overrun these units in the past, and in modern combat are used to pursue enemy forces in constricted terrain (urban areas in particular), where faster forces, such as armoured vehicles are incapable of going or would be exposed to ambush. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, and typically bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress.[1]. This started slowly, first with crossbowmen, then hand cannoneers and arquebusiers, each with increasing effectiveness, marking the beginning of early modern warfare, when firearms rendered the use of heavy infantry obsolete. Infantry Regiment synonyms, Infantry Regiment pronunciation, Infantry Regiment translation, English dictionary definition of Infantry Regiment. Meaning of Regiment. The organization of military forces into regular military units is first noted in Egyptian records of the Battle of Kadesh (c. 1274 BC). The earliest Special Forces commando units were more highly trained infantrymen, with special weapons, equipment, and missions. More often, such jobs are given to specialist engineering corps. All of these protective measures add to the weight an infantryman must carry, and may decrease combat efficiency. Traditionally, in an open battle, or meeting engagement, two armies would manoeuvre to contact, at which point they would form up their infantry and other units opposite each other. Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment ⁕A battalion-equivalent, e.g. Patrolling is the most common infantry mission. The new, young soldiers of this new unit were dispatched to Harper’s Ferry before facing combat for the first time in … derives from the Battle of Chippawa, in which British Major General Phineas Riall noticed that the approaching regiment had on the uniforms of militia, which the British had defeated at Queenston Heights. Larger shields can cover more, but are also heavier and less manoeuvrable, making unexpected attacks even more of a problem. See more. As firearms improved, armour for ranged defence had to be thicker and stronger. Armies have sought to improve and standardise infantry gear to reduce fatigue for extended carrying, increase freedom of movement, accessibility, and compatibility with other carried gear, such as the US All-purpose Lightweight Individual Carrying Equipment (ALICE). The introduction of national and mass armies saw an establishment of minimum requirements and the introduction of special troops (first of them the engineers going back to medieval times, but also different kinds of infantry adopted to specific terrain, bicycle, motorcycle, motorised and mechanised troops) culminating with the introduction of highly trained special forces during the first and second World War. A spear has decent attack abilities with the additional advantage keeping opponents at distance; this advantage can be increased by using longer spears, but this could allow the opponent to side-step the point of the spear and close for hand-to-hand combat where the longer spear is near useless. [8] The basic training for all new US Army soldiers includes use of infantry weapons and tactics, even for tank crews, artillery crews, and base and logistical personnel. organisering, disciplinering, [hård] kontroll, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, US Army Iron Rangers Conduct Spur Ride in Bulgaria, Dodik receives EUFOR Commander in BiH, Major General Dorfer, COAS Bajwa lauds Frontier Force's contributions, sacrifices, Maj Gen Salahuddin new BEPZA executive chairman, The 22nd Michigan Infantry and the Road to Chickamauga, US returns looted Balangiga church bells to Philippines after 117 years, Infantry Manportable Anti-armor Weapon System, Infantry Manportable Assault Weapon System, Infantry Small Arms Weapon Effects Simulator. soldiers trained, armed, and equipped to fight on foot; a branch of an army composed of these soldiers; an infantry regiment or division… See the full definition The regiment has served abroad in World War I, World War II and Afghanistan. An example of an infantry is a group of Marine ground forces. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. The 369th Infantry is known for being the first African-American regiment to serve with the American Expeditionary Force during World War I. Infantry have much greater local situational awareness than other military forces, due to their inherent intimate contact with the battlefield ("boots on the ground");[2] this is vital for engaging and infiltrating enemy positions, holding and defending ground (any military objectives), securing battlefield victories, maintaining military area control and security both at and behind the front lines, for capturing ordnance or materiel, taking prisoners, and military occupation. It was an Army National Guard regiment from the states making up New England, but most of its soldiers came from Maine. [note 2][18]. The regiment existed as an operational unit during the Cold War era as part of the 51st Infantry Division. They can be augmented with a variety of crew-served weapons, armoured personnel carriers, and infantry fighting vehicles. [14], Dense formations are vulnerable to ranged weapons. Thus most cavalry transitioned to mounted infantry. This is usually the best time for infantry units to integrate replacements into units and to maintain equipment. Special Forces units recruit heavily from regular infantry units to fill their ranks. Infantry definition: Infantry are soldiers who fight on foot rather than in tanks or on horses. Zachary Taylor, later the twelfth President of the United States, was a commander of the unit. In the modern US Army, about 15% of soldiers are officially Infantry. a military unit of ground forces: He sent three regiments into battle. Modern infantrymen now treat the bayonet as a backup weapon, but may also have handguns or pistols. Towards the end of Middle Ages, this began to change, where more professional and better trained light infantry could be effective against knights, such as the English longbowmen in the Hundred Years' War. In the Western world, from Classical Antiquity through the Middle Ages (c. 8th century BC to 15th century AD), infantry are categorised as either heavy infantry or light infantry. Some assignments for infantry units involve deployment behind the front, although patrol and security operations are usually maintained in case of enemy infiltration. In mechanised infantry the armoured personnel carrier (APC) is considered the assaulting position. [21][22], Infantrymen often carry secondary or back-up weapons, sometimes called a sidearm or ancillary weapons in modern terminology, either issued officially as an addition to the soldier's standard arms, or acquired unofficially by any other means as an individual preference. [28][29] These heavy loads, combined with long foot patrols of over 40 km (25 mi) a day, in any climate from 43 to −29 °C (109 to −20 °F) in temperature, require the infantryman to be in good physical and mental condition. Dragoons were created as mounted infantry, with horses for travel between battles; they were still considered infantry since they dismounted before combat. infantry definition: 1. the part of an army that fights on foot: 2. the part of an army that fights on foot: 3…. Some non-weapon equipment are designed for close combat shock effects, to get and psychological edge before melee, such as battle flags, war drums, brilliant uniforms, fierce body paint or tattoos, and even battle cries. In antiquity, infantry were armed with an early melee weapon such as a spear, axe or sword, or an early ranged weapon like a javelin, sling, or bow, with a few infantrymen having both a melee and a ranged weapon. In modern infantry, some APCs have evolved to be infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs), which are transport vehicles with more substantial combat abilities, approaching those of light tanks. Traditionally, infantry have relied on their own legs for mobility, but mechanised or armoured infantry often uses trucks and armoured vehicles for transport. Soldiers were grouped into units of 50, which were in turn grouped into larger units of 250, then 1,000, and finally into units of up to 5,000 – the largest independent command. The battalion was previously assigned to the 3rd Brigade Combat Team at Fort Drum, … [5] The individual-soldier term infantryman was not coined until 1837. Also known as foot soldiers or infantrymen, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may also use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. This gives the ambushing infantrymen the combat advantage of surprise, concealment and superior firing positions, and causes confusion. [20] Better infantry equipment to support their health, energy, and protect from environmental factors greatly reduces these rates of loss, and increase their level of effective action. Intense discipline and training became paramount. More commonly in modern times, infantry with special tactics are named for their roles, such as commandos, rangers, snipers, marines, (who all have additional training) and militia (who have limited training); they are still infantry due to their expectation to fight as infantry when they enter combat. These units may also entice the enemy to engage a located recon unit, thus disclosing their location to be destroyed by more powerful friendly forces. 2. These fulfilled the central battlefield role of earlier heavy infantry, using ranged weapons instead of melee weapons. The 4th Infantry Regiment was officially first constituted on 11 January 1812 in the Regular Army as the 14th Infantry. Modern militaries are struggling to balance the value of personal body protection versus the weight burden and ability to function under such weight. However, the unit must be ready for deployment at any point. Similarly, a shield has decent defence abilities, but is literally hit-or-miss; an attack from an unexpected angle can bypass it completely. Regiment definition is - a military unit consisting usually of a number of battalions. The infantry is undergoing the last throes of the destruction of its regimental system, having found itself squeezed into 34 conventional regular infantry battalions plus three regular battalions of the Parachute Regiment. The branch of an army made up of units trained to fight on foot. [6] In modern usage, foot soldiers of any era are now considered infantry and infantrymen.[7]. The 21 st Infantry Regiment was originally constituted in May 1861, as the 2nd Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment and organized in May 1862 at Fort Hamilton, N.Y. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Modern infantry can have GPS, encrypted individual communications equipment, surveillance and night vision equipment, advanced intelligence and other high-tech mission-unique aids. Similar hierarchical organizations have been noted in other ancient armies, typically with approximately 10 to 100 to 1,000 ratios (even where base 10 was not common), similar to modern sections (squads), companies, and regiments.[25]. [10] Though the main force of the army, these forces were usually kept small due to their cost of training and upkeep, and might be supplemented by local short-term mass-conscript forces using the older irregular infantry weapons and tactics; this remained a common practice almost up to modern times.[11]. Children in schools are no longer regimented as they used to be. The meaning of Inf abbreviation is "Infantry" 2nd … But this changed sometime before recorded history; the first ancient empires (2500–1500 BC) are shown to have some soldiers with standardised military equipment, and the training and discipline required for battlefield formations and manoeuvres: regular infantry. Before the adoption of the chariot to create the first mobile fighting forces c. 2000 BC,[12] all armies were pure infantry. Helmets were added back during World War I as artillery began to dominate the battlefield, to protect against their fragmentation and other blast effects beyond a direct hit. Pursuit is a role that the infantry often assumes. The 211th conducted Annual Training as part of the 51st Infantry Division at Fort McClellan, Alabama from 6 to 23 June 1957. These infantry units typically are known for their stealth and ability to operate for periods of time within close proximity of the enemy without being detected. Health, energy, and morale are greatly influenced by how the soldier is fed, so militaries often standardised field rations, starting from hardtack, to US K-rations, to modern MREs. Additionally, soldiers can be rested and general readiness should improve. Beginning with the development the first regular military forces, close-combat regular infantry fought less as unorganised groups of individuals and more in coordinated units, maintaining a defined tactical formation during combat, for increased battlefield effectiveness; such infantry formations and the arms they used developed together, starting with the spear and the shield. The available technology, resources, history, and society can produce quite different weapons for each military and era, but common infantry weapons can be distinguished in a few basic categories. These take more room and individual freedom to swing and wield, necessitating a more loose organisation. Defence operations are the natural counter to attacks, in which the mission is to hold an objective and defeat enemy forces attempting to dislodge the defender. ... Less than a battalion-equivalent, e.g. It is one of the most complicated type of operations an infantry unit will undertake. These include, among others, Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) defence and training other airmen in basic ground defense tactics. They can operate in a wide range of terrain inaccessible to military vehicles, and can operate with a lower logistical burden. a body of soldiers commanded by a colonel. Units assigned to this job usually have a large number of military police attached to them for control of checkpoints and prisons. From the mid-18th century until 1881 the British Army named its infantry as numbered regiments "of Foot" to distinguish them from cavalry and dragoon regiments (see List of Regiments of Foot). The ambushed unit does not know what it is up against, or where they are attacking from. As with grenadiers, the dragoon and cavalry designations can be retained long after their horses, such as in the Royal Dragoon Guards, Royal Lancers, and King's Royal Hussars. This can be avoided by having shield-armed soldiers stand close together, side-by-side, each protecting both themselves and their immediate comrades, presenting a solid shield wall to the enemy. Beyond their main arms and armour, each infantryman's "military kit" includes combat boots, battledress or combat uniform, camping gear, heavy weather gear, survival gear, secondary weapons and ammunition, weapon service and repair kits, health and hygiene items, mess kit, rations, filled water canteen, and all other consumables each infantryman needs for the expected duration of time operating away from their unit's base, plus any special mission-specific equipment. Infantry equipped with special weapons were often named after that weapon, such as grenadiers for their grenades, or fusiliers for their fusils. 3. It was a part of the 26th Infantry Division and the 43rd Infantry Division. tries. Retention of discipline and cohesion throughout the attack is paramount to success. The most basic is personal armour. Also known as foot soldiers or infantrymen, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may also use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. [19] Additional specialised equipment may be required, depending on the mission or to the particular terrain or environment, including satchel charges, demolition tools, mines, barbed wire, carried by the infantry or attached specialists. The opponents for these first formations, the close-combat infantry of more tribal societies, or any military without regular infantry (so called "barbarians") used arms that focused on the individual – weapons using personal strength and force, such as larger swinging swords, axes, and clubs. In medieval times the foot soldiers varied from peasant levies to semi-permanent companies of mercenaries, foremost among them the Swiss, English, Aragonese and German, to men-at-arms who went into battle as well-armoured as knights, the latter of which at times also fought on foot. These have become mostly only ceremonial since the decline of close combat military tactics. In all, this can reach 25–45 kg (60–100 lb) for each soldier on the march. Heavy infantry developed into huge solid block formations, up to a hundred meters wide and a dozen rows deep. The 32nd Infantry Regiment is a battalion within the United States Army. Escorting consists of protecting support units from ambush, particularly from hostile infantry forces. [27], Because of an infantryman's duties with firearms, explosives, physical and emotional stress, and physical violence, casualties and deaths are not uncommon in both war and in peacetime training or operations. Successful attacks rely on sufficient force, preparative reconnaissance and battlefield preparation with bomb assets. [29], Some infantry units are considered Special Forces. Instead, the Americans … [citation needed]. to organize or control (people) very strictly. The creation of standing armies—permanently assembled for war or defence—saw increase in training and experience. https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Infantry+Regiment, [1350–1400; Middle English < Middle French < Late Latin. While soldiers in other military branches can use their mount or vehicle for carrying equipment, and tend to operate together as crews serving their vehicle or ordnance, infantrymen must operate more independently; each infantryman usually having much more personal equipment to use and carry. Under Army Regulation 840-10, each regiment and separate table of organization and equipment (TOE) battalion of the U.S. Army is authorized a coat of arms to be displayed on the organization's flag, called the "colors. For other uses of "foot soldier", see, Marius' reforms of the Roman army included making each man responsible for carrying his own supplies, weapons and several days' worth of ration. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from 109th Infantry Regiment) The 109th Infantry Regiment (" Thirteenth Pennsylvania ") is a parent infantry regiment of the United States Army, represented in the Pennsylvania Army National Guard by the 1st Battalion, 109th Infantry, part of the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 28th Infantry Division. They also have a number of other, specialist roles. These APCs can deliver infantrymen through the front lines to the battle and—in the case of infantry fighting vehicles—contribute supporting firepower to engage the enemy. Maintaining the advantages of heavy infantry meant maintaining formation; this became even more important when two forces with heavy infantry met in battle; the solidity of the formation became the deciding factor. This can be undertaken either in reserve or on the front, but consists of using infantry troops as labor for construction of field positions, roads, bridges, airfields, and all other manner of structures. This is one of the most important roles for the modern infantry, particularly when operating alongside armoured vehicles. Defensive posture offers many advantages to the infantry, including the ability to use terrain and constructed fortifications to advantage; these reduce exposure to enemy fire compared with advancing forces. This includes shields, helmets and many types of armour – padded linen, leather, lamellar, mail, plate, and kevlar. Early crew-served weapons were siege weapons, like the ballista, trebuchet, and battering ram. [note 1] These names can persist long after the weapon speciality; examples of infantry units that retained such names are the Royal Irish Fusiliers and the Grenadier Guards. With many places for the enemy to hide and ambush from, infantry units must be trained in how to enter a city, and systematically clear the buildings, which most likely will be booby trapped, in order to kill or capture enemy personnel within the city. Heavy infantry, such as Greek hoplites, Macedonian phalangites, and Roman legionaries, specialised in dense, solid formations driving into the main enemy lines, using weight of numbers to achieve a decisive victory, and were usually equipped with heavier weapons and armour to fit their role. Even after, with a few exceptions like the Mongol Empire, infantry has been the largest component of most armies in history. Air force infantry and base defense forces, such as the Royal Air Force Regiment, Royal Australian Air Force Airfield Defence Guards, and Indonesian Air Force Paskhas Corps are used primarily for ground-based defense of air bases and other air force facilities. The training of the infantry has differed drastically over time and from place to place. After the fall of Rome, the quality of heavy infantry declined, and warfare was dominated by heavy cavalry,[13] such as knights, forming small elite units for decisive shock combat, supported by peasant infantry militias and assorted light infantry from the lower classes. Such weapons are used when the primary weapon is no longer effective, such it becoming damaged, running out of ammunition, malfunction, or in a change of tactical situation where another weapon is preferred, such as going from ranged to close combat. ‘The infantry battle was finely balanced, both sides fighting bravely hand-to-hand.’ ‘Tanks attacked first with infantry literally in tow as many tanks pulled along infantry soldiers on sledges.’ ‘The force now included around a battalion of infantry as well as a squadron of military engineers.’ The objective of pursuit operations is the destruction of withdrawing enemy forces which are not capable of effectively engaging friendly units, before they can build their strength to the point where they are effective. Maneouvering consumes much of an infantry unit's time. 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