And when other systems hindered her work and raised obstacles to the salutary influence of the Church, she was never done warning them of their error. Amen, I say to you, as long as you did it to one of these my least brethren you did it to me. With heart deeply grateful to the Father of Light, from Whom descends "every best gift and every perfect gift,"[22] We see on all sides consoling signs of this spiritual renewal. These words are no vain consolation, a promise as empty as those of the Communists. In the Encyclical on Christian Education[10] We explained the fundamental doctrine concerning man as it may be gathered from reason and Faith. Finally, We know from reliable information that flows into this Center of Christendom from all parts of the world, that the Communists themselves, where they are not utterly depraved, recognize the superiority of the social doctrine of the Church, when once explained to them, over the doctrines of their leaders and their teachers. The Creator Himself has regulated this mutual relationship in its fundamental lines, and it is by an unjust usurpation that Communism arrogates to itself the right to enforce, in place of the divine law based on the immutable principles of truth and charity, a partisan political program which derives from the arbitrary human will and is replete with hate. On social issues, Pope Leo XIII promulgated Rerum novarum (1891), which was followed by Quadragesimo anno (1931) of Pius XI and Centesimus annus (1991) of John Paul II. Pope Pius XI issued his encyclical exactly forty years after Rerum Novarum. In the Encyclical on Christian Marriage[11] and in Our other Encyclical on Education, cited above, we have treated these topics at considerable length. To achieve this end demanded by the pressing needs of the common welfare, the wealthy classes must be induced to assume those burdens without which human society cannot be saved nor they themselves remain secure. [4] Pius develops the following ethical mandate: The Church considers it a perversion of industrial society, to have developed sharp opposite camps based on income. Both man and civil society derive their origin from the Creator, Who has mutually ordained them one to the other. "[19] It was Christianity that raised manual labor to its true dignity, whereas it had hitherto been so despised that even the moderate Cicero did not hesitate to sum up the general opinion of his time in words of which any modern sociologist would be ashamed: "All artisans are engaged in sordid trades, for there can be nothing ennobling about a workshop."[20]. IV, pp. Is it not deplorable that the right of private property defended by the Church should so often have been used as a weapon to defraud the workingman of his just salary and his social rights? So we must act in today's crisis. 79. . But on final analysis, even in this latter function, society is made for man, that he may recognize this reflection of God's perfection, and refer it in praise and adoration to the Creator. Nor can society systematically void these rights by making their use impossible. And let no one attempt with trifling charitable donations to exempt himself from the great duties imposed by justice. Those who permit themselves to be deceived into lending their aid towards the triumph of Communism in their own country, will be the first to fall victims of their error. Peter. 29. Unlike Leo XIII, who addressed the condition of workers, Pius XI discusses the ethical implications of the social and economic order. Quadragesimo anno (Latin for “In the 40th Year”) is an encyclical issued by Pope Pius XI on 15 May 1931, 40 years after Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum novarum. To apply the remedies thus briefly indicated to the task of saving the world as We have traced it above, Jesus Christ, our Divine King, has chosen priests as the first-line ministers and messengers of His gospel. . If social justice be satisfied, the result will be an intense activity in economic life as a whole, pursued in tranquillity and order. XX (1928), pp. . The more the working men and the poor realize what the spirit of love animated by the virtue of Christ is doing for them, the more readily will they abandon the false persuasion that Christianity has lost its efficacy and that the Church stands on the side of the exploiters of their labor. In man's relations with other individuals, besides, Communists hold the principle of absolute equality, rejecting all hierarchy and divinely-constituted authority, including the authority of parents. Encycl. She is withdrawn from the family and the care of her children, to be thrust instead into public life and collective production under the same conditions as man. 40. They take advantage of the lack of orientation characteristic of modern agnostic science in order to burrow into the universities, where they bolster up the principles of their doctrine with pseudo-scientific arguments. Refusing to human life any sacred or spiritual character, such a doctrine logically makes of marriage and the family a purely artificial and civil institution, the outcome of a specific economic system. Those who act otherwise, and at the same time fondly pretend to attain their objective with purely political or economic means, are in the grip of a dangerous error. On the contrary, laicism was actively and persistently promoted, with the result that we are now reaping the fruits of the errors so often denounced by Our Predecessors and by Ourselves. Quadragesimo anno (Latin for "In the 40th Year") is an encyclical issued by Pope Pius XI on 15 May 1931, 40 years after Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum novarum. and . However, measures taken by the State with this end in view ought to be of such a nature that they will really affect those who actually possess more than their share of capital resources, and who continue to accumulate them to the grievous detriment of others. II, pp. From this it follows that a "charity" which deprives the workingman of the salary to which he has a strict title in justice, is not charity at all, but only its empty name and hollow semblance. 19. There is another explanation for the rapid diffusion of the Communistic ideas now seeping into every nation, great and small, advanced and backward, so that no corner of the earth is free from them. This, Venerable Brethren, is the doctrine of the Church, which alone in the social as in all other fields can offer real light and assure salvation in the face of Communistic ideology. . Communism is intrinsically wrong, and no one who would save Christian civilization may collaborate with it in any undertaking whatsoever. Elsewhere they carry their hypocrisy so far as to encourage the belief that Communism, in countries where faith and culture are more strongly entrenched, will assume another and much milder form. A pseudo-ideal of justice, of equality and fraternity in labor impregnates all its doctrine and activity with a deceptive mysticism, which communicates a zealous and contagious enthusiasm to the multitudes entrapped by delusive promises. capitalism, catholic, pope pius xi, quadragesimo anno Keep this news available to you and millions more Your gift will spread truth, defeat lies, and save lives 47-86). Let all then frequently meditate on those words of the final sentence, so consoling yet so terrifying, which the Supreme Judge will pronounce on the day of the Last Judgment: "Come, ye blessed of my Father . In extreme cases, the Pope recognizes that the State has a right to expropriate private property. To priests in a special way We recommend anew the oft-repeated counsel of Our Predecessor, Leo XIII, to go to the workingman. In view of the events of the past few months, Our warning must seem superfluous. 37. 11. 36. Encycl. Encycl. Freedom and Dignity arising from-unrestrained capitalism -totalitarian communism Elements that determine a Fair Wage. In so doing, as David O'Brien argues, it vindicated the Bishop's Program of 1919 and Monsignor John A. Ryan's work as a social reformer. XXIV (1932), pp. Ubi Arcano, Dec. 23, 1922 (A.A.S., Vol. 15. 75. It happens all too frequently, however, under the salary system, that individual employers are helpless to ensure justice unless, with a view to its practice, they organize institutions the object of which is to prevent competition incompatible with fair treatment for the workers. With paternal affection We exhort these valuable organizations also tO dedicate themselves to the great mission of which We have been treating, a cause which today transcends all others in vital importance. 45. 80. Even on Sundays and holy days, labor-shifts were given no time to attend to their essential religious duties. 59. But the poor too, in their turn, while engaged, according to the laws of charity and justice, in acquiring the necessities of life and also in bettering their condition, should always remain "poor in spirit,"[29] and hold spiritual goods in higher esteem than earthly property and pleasures. We have in mind that Christian charity, "patient and kind,"[32] which avoids all semblance of demeaning paternalism, and all ostentation; that charity which from the very beginning of Christianity won to Christ the poorest of the poor, the slaves. They try perfidiously to worm their way even into professedly Catholic and religious organizations. We pray the Lord to enlighten them that they may abandon the slippery path which will precipitate one and all to ruin and catastrophe, and that they recognize that Jesus Christ, Our Lord, is their only Savior: "For there is no other name under heaven given to man, whereby we must be saved."[47]. St. Matthew, XIII, 55: St. Mark, Vl, 3. "[2] With clear intuition he pointed out that the atheistic movements existing among the masses of the Machine Age had their origin in that school of philosophy which for centuries had sought to divorce science from the life of the Faith and of the Church. Such is the positive task, embracing at once theory and practice, which the Church undertakes in virtue of the mission, confided to her by Christ, of constructing a Christian society, and, in our own times, of resisting unto victory the attacks of Communism. 24. "[30] Only thus will be fulfilled the consoling promise of the Lord: "Blessed are the poor!" Even up to the present moment, masses of them are slain almost daily for no other offense than the fact that they are good Christians or at least opposed to atheistic Communism. Indeed, how many of the poor, in anticipation of the Kingdom of Heaven already proclaimed their own: "for yours is the Kingdom of Heaven,"[31] find in these words a happiness which so many of the wealthy, uneasy with their riches and ever thirsting for more, look for in vain! 261-274. We know how much Our Divine Savior detested this empty pharisaic show, He Who wished that all should adore the Father "in spirit and in truth. Caritate Christi, May 3, 1932 (A.A.S., vol. Cf. 33. It is unfortunately true that the manner of acting in certain Catholic circles has done much to shake the faith of the working-classes in the religion of Jesus Christ. These goods should be sufficient to supply all necessities and reasonable comforts, and to uplift men to that higher standard of life which, provided it be used with prudence, is not only not a hindrance but is of singular help to virtue."[37]. Amen, I say to you, as long as you did it not to one of these least. 39. 4. 177-209). This means that all diligence should be exercised by States to prevent within their territories the ravages of an anti-God campaign which shakes society to its very foundations. To Our great satisfaction, Venerable Brethren, you have, by means of individual and even joint pastoral Letters, accurately transmitted and explained to the Faithful these admonitions. In the first part he reviews and applauds the encyclical of his predecessor. Entire peoples find themselves in danger of falling back into a barbarism worse than that which oppressed the greater part of the world at the coming of the Redeemer. 3. You have stored up to yourselves wrath against the last days. Advances Atheism and Church Persecution: Socialism, like Communism, advances the view of the state as the supreme authority and therefore inevitably persecutes religion. In international trade-relations let all means be sedulously employed for the removal of those artificial barriers to economic life which are the effects of distrust and hatred. Dignity and human freedom are ethical considerations, which cannot be solved by a hostile class confrontation. Under various names which do not suggest Communism, they establish organizations and periodicals with the sole purpose of carrying their ideas into quarters otherwise inaccessible. At the same time the State must allow the Church full liberty to fulfill her divine and spiritual mission, and this in itself will be an effectual contribution to the rescue of nations from the dread torment of the present hour. "[9], 118 "Socialism, on the other hand, wholly ignoring and indifferent to this sublime end of both man and society, affirms that human association has been instituted for the sake of material advantage alone. See to it, Venerable Brethren, that the Faithful do not allow themselves to be deceived! Precisely on this score, all forms of private property must be eradicated, for they are at the origin of all economic enslavement . It will not interfere with the practice of religion. XX-IV, 1932, p. 190). This activity will be proof of the health of the social body, just as the health of the human body is recognized in the undisturbed regularity and perfect efficiency of the whole organism. Syllabus, IV, (A.S.S., vol. Quadragesimo anno (Latin for "In the 40th Year") is an encyclical issued by Pope Pius XI on 15 May 1931, 40 years after Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum novarum, further developing Catholic social teaching. Communism is particularly characterized by the rejection of any link that binds woman to the family and the home, and her emancipation is proclaimed as a basic principle. 3. Now it is of the very essence of social justice to demand for each individual all that is necessary for the common good. This task of formation, now more urgent and indispensable than ever, which must always precede direct action in the field, will assuredly be served by study-circles, conferences, lecture-courses and the various other activities undertaken with a view to making known the Christian solution of the social problem. Hence neither can be exempted from their correlative obligations, nor deny or diminish each other's rights. 78. 6. This explanation is to be found in a propaganda so truly diabolical that the world has perhaps never witnessed its like before. It has therefore changed its tactics, and strives to entice the multitudes by trickery of various forms, hiding its real designs behind ideas that in themselves are good and attractive. Qui Pluribus, Nov. 9, 1864 (Acta Pii IX, Vol I, p. 13). 5. XXIII, 1931, pp. 49. We are well aware that not a few of them groan beneath the yoke imposed on them by men who in very large part are strangers to the real interests of the country. "Blessed are the poor in spirit" were the first words that fell from the lips of the Divine Master in His sermon on the mount. We cherish the firm hope that the fanaticism with which the sons of darkness work day and night at their materialistic and atheistic propaganda will at least serve the holy purpose of stimulating the sons of light to a like and even greater zeal for the honor of the Divine Majesty. Casti Connubii, Dec. 31, 1930 (A.A.S., Vol. "[33] And the reverse: "Depart from me, you cursed, into everlasting fire . And how can there be talk of guarantees of conscience when all faith in God and all fear of God have vanished? He condemns communism but also the social conditions which nourish it. In non-Catholic, even in non-Christian countries, men recognize the great value to society of the social doctrine of the Church. 23. Unlike Leo XIII, who addressed the condition of workers, Pius XI … In reality, besides commutative justice, there is also social justice with its own set obligations, from which neither employers nor workingmen can escape. Encycl. 2. 20. Encycl. 37. Sections 113 to 124 of Quadragesimo Anno constitute an extended discussion of the “more moderate” form of socialism that some more recent “socialists” had sought to develop as distinct from communism. Ranged with Catholic Action are the groups which We have been happy to call its auxiliary forces. A society of individuals became a mass and class society. XVI (1924), pp. There would be today neither Socialism nor Communism if the rulers of the nations had not scorned the teachings and maternal warnings of the Church. It developed a new social conscience. How is it possible that such a system, long since rejected scientifically and now proved erroneous by experience, how is it, We ask, that such a system could spread so rapidly in all parts of the world? Communism, moreover, strips man of his liberty, robs human personality of all its dignity, and removes all the moral restraints that check the eruptions of blind impulse. 81. 10. According to this doctrine there is in the world only one reality, matter, the blind forces of which evolve into plant, animal and man. When all men have finally acquired the collectivist mentality in this Utopia of a really classless society, the political State, which is now conceived by Communists merely as the instrument by which the proletariat is oppressed by the capitalists, will have lost all reason for its existence and will "wither away." 64. We recognize that many others were deceived by fallacious hopes. We make this advice Our own, and faithful to the teachings of Jesus Christ and His Church, We thus complete it: "Go to the workingman, especially where he is poor; and in general, go to the poor." No man of good sense, nor any statesman conscious of his responsibility can fail to shudder at the thought that what is happening today in Spain may perhaps be repeated tomorrow in other civilized countries. 14. Quadragesimo Anno - Corporatism and Fascism Quadragesimo Anno, official edition Quadragesimo Anno.. ...Arguably, Quadragesimo anno is a proposals for a corporativist "third way" between liberal capitalism and communism and an indirect support for the … The Apostle teaches that "he that loveth his neighbor hath fulfilled the law" and he gives the reason: "For, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal . 73. We earnestly exhort them to hear the voice of their loving Father. for I was hungry and you gave me to eat; I was thirsty and you gave me to drink . If, therefore, We consider the whole structure of economic life, as We have already pointed out in Our Encyclical Quadragesimo Anno, the reign of mutual collaboration between justice and charity in social-economic relations can only be achieved by a body of professional and inter professional organizations, built on solidly Christian foundations, working together to effect, under forms adapted to different places and circumstances, what has been called the Corporation . XXVIII (1936); pp. Quadragesimo Anno (Latin for “In the 40th Year”) is an encyclical written by Pope Pius XI, issued 15 May 1931, 40 years after Leo XIII's Rerum Novarum. This is the more imperative since, while this mission has in view man's happiness in heaven, it cannot but promote his true felicity in time. All must remember that the peoples of the earth form but one family in God. 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